The United States recognizes collective agreements[9] [10] [11] Collective agreements in Germany are legally binding, which is accepted by the public and is of no concern. [2] [Failed verification] While in the United Kingdom there was (and probably still is) an «she and us» attitude in labour relations, the situation is very different in post-war Germany and in some other northern European countries. In Germany, the spirit of cooperation between the social partners is much greater. For more than 50 years, German workers have been represented by law on boards of directors. [3] Together, management and workers are considered «social partners.» [4] In 24 states[13], workers working in a unionized company may be required to participate in representation fees (for example. B at disciplinary hearings) if their colleagues negotiated a union safety clause in their contract with management. The fee is usually 1 to 2% of the salary. However, union members and other employees receive on average a wage increase of 5 to 10% compared to their non-unionized (or unsured) colleagues. [9] Some states, particularly in the southern parts of the central and southeastern United States, have banned union security clauses; This can be controversial because it allows some net beneficiaries of the union contract to avoid paying their share of the cost of contract negotiations. Regardless of the state, the Supreme Court ruled that the law prevented a person`s trade union rights from being used without consent to fund political concerns that might conflict with the individual`s personal policy.

Instead, in states where union security clauses are permitted, these deviants can only pay the share of levies paid directly to the representation of workers. [14] In Finland, collective agreements are generally valid. This means that a collective agreement in an industry becomes a general legal minimum for an individual`s employment contract, whether or not he or she is unionized. For this condition to apply, half of the workers in this sector must be unionized and therefore support the agreement. Collective agreements are used to supplement legislation or to negotiate scope-specific contracts.